The contraceptive effect Oralkon preparation is carried out by complementary mechanisms, the most important of which are inhibition of ovulation and the change (increase) the viscosity of cervical secretions, causing it becomes impenetrable to sperm.
In women receiving dianabol reviews combined oral contraceptives, menstrual cycle becomes more regular, reduced pain and bleeding intensity menstrualnopodobnoe, thereby reducing one of the risk factors of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, there is evidence that the reduced risk of endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. When used properly, Pearl Index (an indicator of the rate of pregnancy in 100 women during the year contraceptive use) is less than 1. When the missed tablets or incorrect use Pearl Index may increase.
Absorption. After oral ingestion levonorgestrel is rapidly and completely absorbed, its maximum concentration in the plasma is equal to 4.3 ng / ml, is reached in about 1 hour. The bioavailability of levonorgestrel when taken orally is almost complete.
Distribution. Levonorgestrel binds to plasma albumin and globulin, sex hormone binding (SHBG). The free form is only about 1.3% of the total plasma concentration; about 64% – specifically associated with SHBG and about 34% – non-specifically associated with albumin. Induction of synthesis of SHBG ethinylestradiol affects levonorgestrel binding to plasma proteins, causing an increase in the fraction bound to SHBG fraction and decrease associated with albumin. The apparent volume of distribution of levonorgestrel is about 184 l after a single dose.
Metabolism. Levonorgestrel is almost completely metabolized. The rate of clearance from the blood plasma of about 1.3-1.6 ml / min / kg.
Excretion. The concentration of levonorgestrel in the blood plasma subjected to the two-phase reduction. Terminal half-life is about 20-23 h levonorgestrel unmodified form is not displayed, but only as metabolites that are excreted by the kidneys and in the intestine in a ratio of about 1: 1..
The equilibrium concentration. When the daily intake of the drug levonorgestrel concentration in serum increases about 3-4 times, reaching the equilibrium concentration in the second half of the course acceptance. On the pharmacokinetics of levonorgestrel concentration affects SHBG, which when used together with levonorgestrel ethinyl estradiol increased by about 1.7 times. When equilibrium concentration clearance rate is reduced to about 0.7 ml / min / kg.
Ethinylestradiol Absorption. Following oral administration of ethinylestradiol is rapidly and completely absorbed. Maximum plasma concentration dianabol reviews is equal to about 95 pg / ml, achieved after 1-2 h. During primary intake and passage through the liver is metabolized ethinylestradiol, whereby its oral bioavailability is on average about 45% (individual differences in within 20-65%).
Distribution. Ethinylestradiol almost full (about 98%), although not specifically bind to albumin. Ethinyl estradiol induces the synthesis of SHBG. The apparent volume of distribution of ethinylestradiol is 2,8-8,6 l / kg.
Metabolism. Ethinylestradiol undergoes conjugation presistemna as in the mucosa of the small intestine and in the liver. The main pathway – aromatic hydroxylation. The rate of clearance from the blood plasma of 2,3-7 ml / min / kg.
. Withdrawal Reduction ethinyl estradiol concentration in blood plasma is biphasic; The first phase is characterized by a half-life of about 1 hour, and the second -. 10-20 h in an unmodified form of the organism is not displayed. Ethinyl estradiol metabolites are excreted through the kidneys and intestines in a ratio of 4: 6 with a half-life of about 24 hours.
The equilibrium concentration. With daily oral Oralkona ethinyl estradiol concentration in the blood plasma is slightly increased, reaching a maximum value 114 pg / ml at the end of the course. Given the volatile terminal half-life and a daily oral intake, the equilibrium concentration is achieved in about one week.
Indications for use.
- preventing dianabol reviews unwanted pregnancy (contraception);
- hormone-dependent functional disorders of the menstrual cycle.
The drug should not be applied if any of the conditions / diseases listed below. If any of these conditions / diseases develop for the first time in patients receiving the drug should be immediately repealed.
- Thrombosis (venous and arterial) and thromboembolism present or in history (including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction), cerebrovascular disorders.
- Conditions prior thrombosis (including transient ischemic attack, angina pectoris) now or in history.
- Have expressed or multiple risk factors for venous or arterial thrombosis may also constitute a contraindication (see section “Special instructions”).
- Migraine with focal neurological symptoms in the present or in history.
- Diabetes mellitus with vascular complications.
- Pancreatitis with severe hypertriglyceridemia now or in history.
- Liver failure and severe liver disease (up to normalization of liver function tests).
- Liver tumors (benign or malignant) now or in history.
- Identified hormone malignancies (including genital or mammary glands) or are suspected.
- Bleeding from the vagina of unknown origin.
- Pregnancy or suspected it.
- Hypersensitivity to any component of the drug;
- Lactose intolerance / fructose, deficiency of lactase / sucrase / isomaltase, glucose-galactose malabsorption (due to the presence of lactose and sucrose).
If any of the conditions / diseases / risk factors mentioned below are currently available, you should carefully correlate the potential risks and expected benefits of the use of combined oral contraceptives in each individual case:
- Risk factors for thrombosis and thromboembolism: smoking, thrombosis, myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident at a young age, someone from the next of kin; obesity; dislipoproteinemia, hypertension; migraine without focal neurological symptoms; valvular heart disease; irregular heartbeat, prolonged immobilization, extensive surgery, major trauma.
- Other diseases in which may occur peripheral circulatory disorders: diabetes without vascular complications; systemic lupus erythematosus; hemolytic-uremic syndrome; Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis; sickle cell anemia; and phlebitis of superficial veins.
- Liver disease mild to moderate, with normal values of liver function tests.
- Diseases caused or aggravated first time during pregnancy, or on the background of the previous use of sex hormones (eg, jaundice, cholestasis, gallbladder disease, otosclerosis with hearing impairment, porphyria, herpes during pregnancy, Sydenham’s chorea).
In women with hereditary forms of angioedema exogenous estrogens may induce or worsen symptoms of angioedema.
Use during pregnancy and lactation
Oralkon is contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation. If pregnancy is detected during the reception Oralkon drug, the drug should be immediately abolished. However, numerous epidemiological studies have revealed no increased risk of defects in children born to women treated with hormones before pregnancy, or teratogenic effects when sex hormones were taken inadvertently in early pregnancy.
Receiving combined oral contraceptives can reduce the amount of breast milk and change its composition, therefore, as a rule, their use is contraindicated during breast-feeding. A small amount of sex hormones and / or metabolites thereof may be derived from milk.
Dosing and dose
apply inward dianabol reviews with a small amount of water.
1 tablet in approximately the same time of the day with the first cycle, and further “the arrow” as indicated on the package. Take continuously for 21 days. Receiving the next pack is started after a 7-day tablet-free interval during which bleeding usually develops “cancel”. Bleeding usually begins 2-3 days after the last tablet and can continue until the beginning of reception of a new package. steroids for bodybuilding for sale buy test prop steroids where to buy men’s health